The specified wire is machine-cut and welded to form from 32mm to 75mm thick three-dimensional wireframes. Where the frames will be used in highly corrosive environments, they are epoxy coated or electroplated.
Where the frames require to be provided with a central layer of insulation, they are placed horizontally on a conveyor belt, and coarse sand is dumped onto the belt to a controlled, uniform depth. Polyurethane is then sprayed onto the surface of the sand and foamed to a depth that is not less than 15 mm and not more than 27 mm. The frame is removed from the belt with the foam centrally placed.
The system uses nine different wall types, seven Kwikframe walls and two brick walls.
The wall types are shown in the plan section in the figure.
Wall type 1 (80 mm thick insulated wall) is comprised of insulated Kwikframe panels with 30 mm thick plaster on the internal wall surfaces and 35 mm thick plaster on the external wall surfaces.
Wall type 2 (70 mm thick insulated wall) is similar to wall type 1 but with 28 mm thick plaster on both sides of the insulating core.
Wall type 3 (80 mm thick solid wall) has uninsulated wire panels filled with plaster and at least 15 mm plaster cover to the wire.
Wall type 4 (125 mm thick insulated wall of double-frame construction) is constructed by using insulated Kwikframe wire panels in conjunction with uninsulated panels.They are then tied firmly together, applying 80 mm thick plaster to the side with insulation and 30 mm thick plaster to the other side.
Wall type 5 (125 mm thick insulated wall of single-frame construction) is identical to wall type 1 but with a 55 mm thick cement plaster applied to each side of the insulation.
Foundation, Foundation Walls and Surface Bed
A competent person classifies the site in accordance with the site class designation set out in table 3 of the SAIEG publication.
Guidelines for urban engineering geological investigations.
Two types of foundations are used on non-problematic ground conditions:
cast in situ concrete strip footings may be plain or reinforced concrete (with a minimum compressive strength of 15MPa at 28 days).
Slab foundations with thickened edge beams and thickened surface bed under internal structural walls are cast integrally with a ground floor slab (typically 75 mm thick). They may be of plain concrete or reinforced concrete (with a minimum compressive strength of 15 MPa at 28 days).
The ground floor slabs are of cast in situ concrete, either power-floated to a smooth finish or with a sand/cement screed finish. The thickness of the slabs and the reinforcement, if any, depending on ground conditions, the building foundation with thickened edge beam to slab load and type of foundation used.
The floor slabs may be reinforced and thickened locally under loadbearing walls to bear the weight of internal walls, where no footing is provided for these. Foundation walls are built of 230 mm (nominal) thick brickwork.
Wall Anchorage and Damp-Proof Membrane
The figures illustrate the method of fixing Kwikframe panels to the 80 mm wide (depending on wall type) x50 mm deep recess formed in the perimeter of the concrete foundation/floor slab for external walls and thickened floor slab under internal structural walls (page 14 of the agrément certificate. An underfloor damp-proof membrane is provided in each case.
External wall panels are anchored to the perimeter beam with R8 mild steel l shaped anchor bars cast into the concrete at 600 mm centres (see page 13). The overall length of the bars is 900 mm, with the short leg of the L at least 150 mm long with the bar protruding at least 400 mm above the foundation/floor slab.
In both cases, the anchor bars must be coated with bituminous paint for 25 mm above and below where the bar projects through the concrete to prevent necking corrosion.The R8 mild steel anchor bars can also be epoxied into holes drilled in the thickened perimeter beam at 600 mm centres. The anchor bars must be epoxied for at least 300mm into the perimeter beam and project at least 400 mm into the wall panel.
A thick bitumen layer (not less than 1 mm) is applied to the stepped concrete footing before the panels are placed and secured in position.
Internal walls serving a structural function (e.g. providing lateral stability to external walls) are anchored to the thickened surface bed with R8 mild steel L shaped anchor bars cast into the concrete. Two R8 bars are provided per panel, each bar having a minimum overall length of 600 mm, with the short leg being 150 mm long and the length of the bar above the surface bed at least 300 mm. The bars are epoxy coated 25 mm above and 25 mm into the concrete.
Non-structural internal wall panels are fixed to the concrete floor slab with a metal clip fixed to the slab with a Hilti nail. Galvanised steel wire ties run under this clip and are fixed to the wire mesh on either side of the KWIKFRAME panel. At least two clips are provided for each panel.
Foundations, Foundation Walls and Surface bed
The following dimensional limitations apply:
Maximum roof span 10,00 m
Maximum eaves height above floor level: 3,00 m
Maximum height to top of gable wall 5,00 m
Maximum wall length between lateral supports 5,00 m
Maximum wall length between movement joints 22,00 m
Maximum eaves height in industrial buildings (i.e. in non-loadbearing walls between portal frame columns 3,50 m
Where these dimensional limitations are exceeded and in cases where the KWIKFRAME Building System is used for the addition of an upper floor to a single storey conventionally constructed house:
• A professional engineer prepares a rational design that:
– Will ensure the structural integrity of the entire building.
– Adheres to the construction details dealt with in the Agrément certificate.
•The rational design covers all aspects of the works that will be affected by changes to the structural design.
• The engineer monitors those aspects of the works that are covered by the rational design, to verify that the design is being correctly interpreted and that the construction techniques that are being used are appropriate to the structural stability of the subject.
• The engineer takes full professional responsibility for the rational design.
• All other aspects of the works are carried out in accordance with the requirements of this certificate.
A professional engineer is also responsible for the design of:
- The supporting structure, including the column foundations for the first floors of specific multi-storey buildings.
• The integration of Spaceframe partitioning into the overall structural design of conventional buildings